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TNPSC Current Affairs February 17, 2018

www.tnpsc.academy – TNPSC Current Affairs February 17, 2018 (17/02/2018)

 

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Topic : New inventions on Science and Technology, Latest Diary of Events

First large scale CO2-injected project in Asia

Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to introduce carbon dioxide injection in its Gandhar field to recover an extra 20 million barrels of crude oil under the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) programme which is being undertaken to improve India’s energy security.

While the technology is a proven concept in the West specially the US and Canada, ONGC’s project would be the first large scale CO2-injected project in Asia.

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Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications

Scientists find a potentially powerful new antibiotic in dirt

Researchers have discovered a new class of antibiotics, which they have named malacidins, which can be extracted from soil bacteria that are notoriously difficult to culture in labs and study.

Significance of this discovery:

The world is facing an epidemic of infections that no longer respond well to the drugs used to treat them—also known as super bugs.

The findings of the research are encouraging. The researchers say that based on their research, malacidins may be able to attack and kill many types of super bugs.

The new antibiotics fought off many common infections in lab and mice tests, eliminating some microbes that have become resistant to existing antibiotics.

What is a superbug?

A superbug, also called multiresistant, is a bacterium that carries several resistance genes.

These are resistant to multiple antibiotics and are able to survive even after exposure to one or more antibiotics.

Why India is more vulnerable?

Bacteria spread easily in India because half of Indians defecate outdoors, and much of the sewage generated by those who do use toilets is untreated.

As a result, Indians have among the highest rates of bacterial infections in the world and collectively take more antibiotics, which are sold over the counter here, than any other nationality.

A study found that Indian children living in places where people are less likely to use a toilet tend to get diarrhoea and be given antibiotics more often than those in places with more toilet use.

All those drugs that create resistance to antibiotics find their way into hospital sewage, which is mostly dumped untreated into rivers, canals and pits in the surrounding community where pregnant women can become infected.

Equally worrisome has been the rapid growth of India’s industrialised animal husbandry, where antibiotics are widespread. Most large chicken farms here use feed laced with antibiotics banned for use in animals in the United States.

Also, antibiotics are still readily available over the counter, and people still self-medicate. The Indian government has notably failed to institute and implement real regulations to stop chemists from handing out antibiotics like cheap candy.

Way ahead:

The global community needs to urgently address the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in an actionable manner, and fast-track research on the next generation of drugs.

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Topic : Books and Authors, Persons in News

Mahabharatham in Italy language – Sivakumar

Several years ago, Actor Sivakumar’s preaching’s of Mahabharatham was composed into book in English by Maruthi Vengatachalam.

This book is now translated into Italy language.

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Topic : Awards and Honours, Latest Diary of Events

Indian Engineer Awarded Sci-Tech Oscar Award

Vikas Sathaye, a Pune-born person has been honoured with the Scientific and Engineering Academy Award at the Oscars Scientific and Technical Awards 2018 at Beverly Hills in Los Angeles, California.

Sathaye and his team received the award for his contribution towards conceptualisation, designing, engineering, and the implementation of the ‘Shotover K1 Camera System’ during his stint at Shotover Camera Systems in Queenstown, New Zealand.

What is that?

The Shotover K1 Camera System is a camera mount that is used in aerial filming. The camera mount gets attached to the base of a helicopter, which carries the camera and lens.

The primary function of the camera mount is to eliminate any vibration from reaching the camera, thus ensuring a steady footage.

This innovative six-axis stabilised aerial camera mount, with its enhanced ability to frame shots while looking straight down, enables greater creative freedom and results in clear, unwavering photography and videography.

The team that developed the camera system consists of four members- Sathaye, John Coyle, Brad Hurndell and Shane Buckham as the lead electrical and software engineer.

Together, the technologists developed an elaborate system that positively impacted the evolution of motion pictures.

The Scientific and Technical Awards are three different Honorary Awards that are given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) during the annual Academy Awards season.

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Topic : Sports and Records, Persons in News

Roger Federer – oldest world no. 1

Twenty-time Grand Slam champion Roger Federer has become the oldest-ever men’s singles world number one tennis player, at the age of 36.

About Roger Federer:

Roger Federer born 8 August 1981) is a Swiss professional tennis player.

Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles—the most in history for a male player—and has held the world No. 1 spot in the ATP rankings for a record total of 303 weeks, including a stretch of 237 consecutive weeks between February 2004 and August 2008.

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