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www.tnpsc.academy – TNPSC Current Affairs April 10, 2019

www.tnpsc.academy – TNPSC Current Affairs April 10, 2019 (10/04/2019)

 

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Topic: New Inventions on Science and Technology, Latest Diary of Events

New state of matter

Scientists have found a new state of physical matter recently. The new state is solid and liquid at the same time. Atoms can exist as both solid and liquid simultaneously. The state is known as the chain melted state.

How was it found?

When applying high pressures and temperatures to potassium, a simple metal; it creates a state in which most of the element’s atoms form a solid lattice structure. However, some elements can, when subjected to extreme conditions, take on the properties of both solid and liquid states. Researchers have shown that this unusual but stable state is part solid and part liquid.

What causes this?

Applying pressure to the atoms leads to the formation of two interlinked solid lattice structures. Chemical interactions between atoms in one lattice are strong, meaning they stay in a solid form when the structure is heated, while the other atoms melt into a liquid state.

Under the right conditions, over half a dozen elements, including sodium and bismuth are thought to be capable of existing in the newly discovered state.

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Topic : New Policies on Economy, Latest Diary of Events

World Bank report on remittances

World Bank has released its Migration and Development Brief.

India:

India is positioned as the world’s top recipient of remittances with its diaspora sending USD 79 billion back home in 2018. The remittances in 2018 grew by over 14 percent in India.

India managed to retain its top spot in remittances by registering a significant flow of remittances from USD 62.7 billion in 2016 to USD 65.3 billion 2017 and to USD 79 billion in 2018, a significant growth over the last three years.

Natural disasters like Kerala floods likely boosted the financial help that migrants sent to their families.

Global findings:

The remittances to low-and middle-income countries reached a record high of USD 529 billion in 2018, an increase of 9.6 percent from USD 483 billion in 2017.

Global remittances, including flows to high-income countries, reached USD 689 billion in 2018, up from USD 633 billion in 2017. The overall increase in remittances regionally was driven by a stronger economy and employment situation in the United States and outward flows from few Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and the Russian Federation.

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Topic: New Inventions on Science and Technology, Latest Diary of Events

CRISPR Technology

For the first time, four lizards have been genetically modified using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing tool.

Key facts:

Researchers from the University of Georgia (UGA) were able to target the pigmentation genes of Anolis sagrei lizards to create four albino offspring.

The team specifically targeted the tyrosinase gene and successfully injected the gene editing solution into 146 oocytes.

What are Genes and what is gene- editing?

Genes contain the bio-information that defines any individual. Physical attributes like height, skin or hair colour, more subtle features and even behavioural traits can be attributed to information encoded in the genetic material.

An ability to alter this information gives scientists the power to control some of these features. Gene “editing” — sometimes expressed in related, but not always equivalent, terms like genetic modification, genetic manipulation or genetic engineering — is not new.

What is CRISPR-Cas9?

The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats, or CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) (CRISPR-Cas9) system has revolutionised genetic manipulations and made gene editing simpler, faster and easily accessible to most laboratories.

CRISPR technology is basically a gene-editing technology that can be used for the purpose of altering genetic expression or changing the genome of an organism. The technology can be used for targeting specific stretches of an entire genetic code or editing the DNA at particular locations.

Significance:

CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops. However, its promise also raises ethical concerns.

How it works?

CRISPR-Cas9 technology behaves like a cut-and-paste mechanism on DNA strands that contain genetic information.

The specific location of the genetic codes that need to be changed, or “edited”, is identified on the DNA strand, and then, using the Cas9 protein, which acts like a pair of scissors, that location is cut off from the strand. A DNA strand, when broken, has a natural tendency to repair itself.

Scientists intervene during this auto-repair process, supplying the desired sequence of genetic codes that binds itself with the broken DNA strand.

Concerns:

Tampering with the genetic code in human beings is more contentious. Leading scientists in the field have for long been calling for a “global pause” on clinical applications of the technology in human beings, until internationally accepted protocols are developed.

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Topic: India and its foreign policies, Latest Diary of Events

Bold Kurukshetra 2019

12th edition of ‘Bold Kurukshetra 2019’, a India- Singapore joint military exercise, began at Babina Cantonment, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh.

The Exercise is aimed at attaining a high level of interoperability between the armies of both the nations through mutual understanding and familiarisation with each other’s operational procedures and equipment.

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Topic : International Diary of Events

Sri Lanka opens China-financed railway line

Sri Lanka has opened a new railway line, built with China’s assistance, connecting its coastal city of Matara and Beliatta in Hambantota, a move that will boost passenger traffic into the island nation’s deep south.

The 26.75-km long Matara-Beliatta railway extension is the first to be constructed in Sri Lanka since 1948, and it passes through the country’s longest and second-longest railway bridges.

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Topic : New Appointments, Persons in News

Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu – Fifth Term as Prime Minister

Benjamin Netanyahu appeared to head a historic 5th term as Israel’s prime minister with close-to-complete unofficial election results giving his right-wing Likud and other nationalist and religious parties a solid majority in parliament.

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Topic : Sports, Awards and Honours, Persons in News

Wisden’s leading  cricketers of the year 2019

Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack 2019 has named Virat Kohli and Smriti Mandhana as the Leading male and female cricketer of the year 2019 respectively.

Smriti Mandhana bagged the women’s Leading Cricketer of the year for the first time while Indian men’s team captain was named for the third straight year.

Kohli was also chosen as one of the five Wisden Cricketers of the year, along with Jos Buttler, Tammy Beaumont, Rory Burns and Sam Curran.

About Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack:

Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack (“The Bible of Cricket”) is a cricket reference book issued annually in the United Kingdom.

Topic : Awards and Honours, Persons in News

Nammazhvar Award 2019

The ‘Nammazhvar Award’ was presented to R. Dhanasekaran of Thanjavur.

Mr. Dhanasekaran was selected for the award for his contribution towards uplift of economic status of rural women, according to a Thaiman press release.

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